Signs of type 2 diabetes to look for in a person diagnosed with type 1 include:
Usually a person with elements of type 2 diabetes is overweight or obese. One way to determine obesity is to calculate a person's BMI – Body Mass Index – which is a calculated number based on a person's weight and height.
- If the BMI is > 85 percentile for gender and age the child or teen is considered overweight.
- If the BMI is > 95th percentile for gender and age the child or teen is considered obese.
- An adult with a BMI > 25 is overweight.
- An adult with a BMI > 30 is obese.
- Elevated insulin needs
The total daily insulin requirement varies widely among people with diabetes. It's primarily based on the balance between how much insulin their body makes, how well the insulin works, how much the person weighs and their diet and physical activity. Total daily insulin needs also increase during puberty (when an adolescent matures).
When the total daily insulin requirement is greater than 1.5 units per kilogram of body weight it MAY be an indication of insulin resistance and should be discussed with a doctor.
Insulin resistance tends to have an adverse effect on a person's lipid (cholesterol) levels. If untreated, over the years, high bad cholesterol and low good cholesterol increase the risk for cardiovascular problems. For a person less than 20 years of age, the desired fasting lipid levels are:
- LDL (bad) cholesterol should be less than 130 mg/dL
- HDL (good) cholesterol should be higher than 45 mg/dL
- Triglycerides should be less than 200 mg/dL
- Total cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dL
(Source: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute)
- Blood Pressure
For children and teens, there are tables that give normal blood pressure by age, height and gender. Here is a reference to those tables. In general, a teen with a blood pressure greater than 130/80 has high blood pressure.
- Dark velvety skin
Some people with signs of type 2 diabetes, especially African Americans and Latinos, develop a skin rash that looks like dirty skin with a smooth and raised surface (much like velvet fabric) usually on their neck, arm pit or groin. This is called acanthosis nigricans and while it's one of the early signs of insulin resistance, it can get better with treatment.
- Abnormal menstrual periods, increased hair and acne
Some women with elements of type 2 diabetes experience abnormal hormonal activity because of problems with ovarian function. The ovaries are the glands that produce female hormones responsible for female sexual characteristics and the ability to have babies. With abnormal ovarian function a woman can have irregular or infrequent menstrual periods, increased body hair and acne. When these problems occur the condition is call Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). With proper treatment, PCOS can be improved.
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