Comparing Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
While these characteristics are helpful in telling one type of diabetes from another, there is considerable overlap making the exact diagnosis difficult and sometimes impossible to decide.
|Typical clinical course
||Usually rapid onset, symptoms for a few weeks to one month
||Usually slower or more subtle onset, symptoms for many months
||Primarily lean, although as more children become overweight, increasing number of children with type 1 are overweight.
||Almost all of the children with type 2 are overweight or obese.
|Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is diagnosed when the child has ketones in the urine and blood, and is dehydrated and sick. It usually requires hospitalization and IV fluids and insulin.
||This occurs in about 35%-40% of children at the time of diagnosis of type 1.
||A very mild form is found in some children with type 2. It has been reported to occur in type 2 in about 15% of cases at diagnosis.
||5% have a relative with type 1 diabetes
Up to 20% may have a relative with type 2 diabetes
||Almost all will have at least one relative with type 2.
|Other conditions in addition to the diabetes
||A host of autoimmune disease such as thyroid and/or adrenal disorders, vitiligo (loss of pigmentation of the skin) and celiac disease are seen in children with type 1 at a higher rate than the general population. Autoimmune disorders also run in family members
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Acanthosis nigricans (90%)
High Blood Pressure
Other obesity related conditions
||Can be preserved at diagnosis
|Presence of islet auto-antibodies
||Although this is the hallmark of type 1, only 85% of those felt to have type 1 have antibodies.
||Although this is the hallmark of type 1, 15% of those presenting with what looks like type 2 diabetes have antibodies.
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