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Team Management
Describes a diabetes treatment approach in which medical care is provided by a physician, diabetes nurse educator, dietitian, and behavioral scientist working together with the patient.

One of several different classes of pills that lower the level of glucose in the blood. Used in Type 2 diabetes. There are several thiazolidinedione pills available. This class of medications is also called "glitazones."

Each type of pill is sold under two names: one is the generic name as listed by the US Food and Drug Administration; the other is the trade name given by the manufacturer. The thiazolidinediones that are presently available are:

Generic Name: rosiglitazone
Trade Name: Avandia

Generic Name: pioglitazone
Trade Name: Actos

See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents.

An infection of the mouth. In people with diabetes, this infection may be caused by high levels of glucose (sugar) in mouth fluids, which helps the growth of fungus that causes the infection. Patches of whitish-colored skin in the mouth are signs of this disease.

An endocrine gland located in the neck, that makes two hormones (T4 or thyroxine and T3 or triiodothyronine, which are frequently simply called "thyroid hormone") that regulate the body's metabolic rate. Overactivity of the thyroid gland is called hyperthyroidism; underactivity is called hypothyroidism.

Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism may have an autoimmune basis, and both are somewhat more common in people with Type 1 diabetes.

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, that controls the production and release of the thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Measurement of the TSH level in the bloodstream is commonly done as a screening tool for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and as an assessment of the adequacy of therapy in people who are taking thyroid hormone pills as therapy. Typically, high values of TSH are associated with hypothyroidism, and absence of TSH is associated with hyperthyroidism.

Tight Control
See Intensive Management

A pill taken to lower the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Only some people with noninsulin-dependent diabetes take these pills.

See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents.

A pill taken to lower the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Only some people with noninsulin-dependent diabetes take these pills.

See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents.

Toxemia of Pregnancy
A condition in pregnant women in which poisons such as the body's own waste products build up and may cause harm to both the mother and baby. The first signs of toxemia are swelling near the eyes and ankles (edema), headache, high blood pressure, and weight gain that the mother might confuse with the normal weight gain of being pregnant. The mother may have both glucose (sugar) and acetone in her urine. The mother should tell the doctor about these signs at once.

Harmful; having to do with poison.

Transplantation of Pancreas
See Pancreas Transplant.

Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
A treatment for painful neuropathy.

A wound, hurt, or injury to the body. Trauma can also be mental such as when a person feels great stress.

A type of blood fat. The body needs insulin to remove this type of fat from the blood. When diabetes is under control and a person's weight is what it should be, the level of triglycerides in the blood is usually about what it should be.

A drug formerly used as a treatment for Type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes; belongs to a class of drugs called thiazolidinediones. Withdrawn from the market in March, 2000 because of rare liver problems.

See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents.

Twenty-Four Hour Urine
The total amount of a person's urine for a 24-hour period.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes has been subdivided into:

  • Immune-mediated diabetes (Type 1A). This form of diabetes results from a cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. Markers of the immune destruction of the beta cell include islet cell autoantibodies and other antibodies. One and usually more of these autoantibodies are present in 85 - 90% of individuals when fasting hyperglycemia is initially detected. Also, the disease has strong HLA associations.

  • Idiopathic diabetes (Type 1B). Some forms of Type 1 diabetes have no known etiologies. Some of these patients have permanent insulin deficiency and are prone to ketoacidosis but have no evidence of autoimmunity. Although only a minority of patients with Type 1 diabetes fall into this category, of those who do, most are of African, Hispanic, or Asian origin. Individuals with this form of diabetes suffer from episodic ketoacidosis and exhibit varying degrees of insulin deficiency between episodes. This form of diabetes is strongly inherited, lacks immunological evidence for beta cell autoimmunity, and is not HLA associated. An absolute requirement for insulin replacement therapy in affected patients may come and go.

Type 1 diabetes used to be known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, and ketosis-prone diabetes.

Contrast with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The most common form of diabetes mellitus; over 90 percent of people who have diabetes have Type 2 diabetes. The onset is usually in middle age and in most cases is thought to be due to some form of insensitivity to the action of insulin rather than to insulin deficiency. Many of the people who have this type of diabetes are overweight. Initial treatment is by weight reduction and excercise with the later addition of an increasing range of blood glucose lowering drugs. Ultimately it may be neccessary to give insulin. Increasingly, geneticists are defining specific subgroups such as Maturity Onset Diabetes in the Young; but to date, this has not led to any change in treatment plans.

Type 2 diabetes used to be called noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, adult-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, ketosis-resistant diabetes, and stable diabetes.

Contrast with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.


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