Immunizations and Type 1 Diabetes
In the past several years, there have been several press reports about claims that vaccinations of young children cause type 1 diabetes. Specifically mentioned is the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Given the proven health benefits of vaccinations and the desire to prevent Type 1 diabetes, these concerns are clearly worth investigating. However, there are many peer reviewed studies, published in respected scientific journals, that show no correlation between immunizations and increased risk for Type 1 diabetes. The claims of an association between immunizations and type 1 diabetes are not supported by the data, according to the studies referenced below.
Information About Vaccines and Diabetes
- Childhood Vaccination and Type 1 Diabetes, published in the April 1, 2004 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, concludes that the study " ... results do not support a causal relation between childhood vaccination and type 1 diabetes." The full text of this study is freely available in HTML and PDF formats.
- Childhood vaccinations, vaccination timing, and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus, published in the December 2001 issue of Pediatrics, concluded "... we did not find an increased risk of type 1 diabetes associated with any of the routinely recommended childhood vaccines." (DeStefano F, Pediatrics 2001;108:E112) The full text of this study is freely available in HTML format and PDF format. This study set out to explore the hypothesis that vaccinations and the timing of vaccinations caused type 1 diabetes and found no association.
- Lack of association between early childhood immunizations and beta-cell autoimmunity, a peer-reviewed study which found no association between childhood vaccinations -- including Hib -- and increased risk of Type 1 diabetes. (Diabetes Care 1999 Oct;22(10):1694-7) The full text of this study is available in PDF format.
- Diabetes and Vaccines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contains extensive citations of studies that show no association between vaccinations, vaccination timing, and the development of type 1 diabetes.
- What do you make of the latest reports about the association between type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine? from "Ask the Diabetes Team" (November 1999).
- Association between type 1 diabetes and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: birth cohort study, a peer-reviewed study which concludes that there is no association between Hib vaccination and increased risk of Type 1 diabetes. (BMJ 1999;318:1169-1172) The full text of this study is available in PDF format.
- Autoimmune, neurological, and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark and Sweden: cohort study. Free full text available in HTML and PDF formats.
Other Vaccine Related Information
- Vaccines to Children: Protective Effect and Adverse Events: A Systematic Review.
- Vaccinations and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
- Autism Occurrence by MMR Vaccine Status Among US Children With Older Siblings With and Without Autism.
- Use of population based background rates of disease to assess vaccine safety in childhood and mass immunisation in Denmark: nationwide population based cohort study. Free full text available in HTML and PDF formats.
- Autoimmune disorders and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination of young female subjects.
- Immunization by the United States Department of Health and Human Services provides an excellent overview of why vaccinations are important. Especially important is The Effectiveness Of Immunizations.
- Drugs, Driving, and Airplanes: Fallacies of Risk-Taking offers an excellent discussion of risk vs. benefit.
- Evaluation Immunization Information on the Web and in the News.
- In August 2011, the Institute of Medicine issued a report on Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality and concluded that evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between the MMR and DTaP vaccines and type 1 diabetes.
- Continuing Increases in Autism Reported to California's Developmental Services System demonstrated that thimerosal had no connection to autism. Free full text available in HTML and PDF formats.
- Mercury from Vaccines Clears More Quickly in Infants than Anticipated.
- Thiomersal in vaccines: balancing the risk of adverse effects with the risk of vaccine-preventable disease.
- Thimerosal and Vaccines.
- Thimerosal in Vaccines from the FDA.
- What Parents Should Know About Thimerosal from the American Academy of Pediatrics.
- Mercury Levels in Newborns and Infants After Receipt of Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines. Free full text available in HTML and PDF formats.
- The UMHS Vaccine Safety Resource Page contains many excellent references and links to additional vaccine information.
- Drug Test is an excellent article describing the challenge facing reporters who want to cover the debate about thimerosal.
- Is Childhood Vaccination Associated With Asthma? A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.
- Risk of autoimmune diseases and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines: Six years of case-referent surveillance.
Original posting 4 November 1999
Last updated 12 September 2017
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